Here is a spectacular and informative guide to the amazing world beneath our feet. Stunning color photographs of rocks, fossils, minerals, precious metals, crystals, jewels and gemstones give the reader a unique eyewitness insight into the evolution and composition of the Earth. See rocks that have come from outer space, stalactites as old as dinosaurs, the strange and beautiful shapes of natural crystals and priceless nuggets of gold, silver and platinum. Learn what the Earth is made of - and how its rocks were formed, how early humans made the first flint tools and how diamonds and precious stones are cut, polished, and made into jewelry. Discover how prehistoric animals are preserved today as fossils, how volcanoes work, how rocks are formed from molten lava, how minerals and metals are mined and how pebbles on the seashore are worn down into sand, and much, much more!
The colors, shapes and properties of minerals vary from the bland to the magnificent. Guide to Minerals, Rocks and Fossils is a practical and authoritative handbook that is both comprehensive and easy to use.
Each of the 600 specimens is shown in full color, sometimes in two or more forms. There are also drawings that show the structure of the crystalline specimens. It covers the basics like granite, as well as oddities like meteorites and tektites.
Fossils include sponges, corals, arthropods, brachiopods, and fossil land plants.
Each is described in detail, with notes on: - color and transparency - grain size - hardness - structure - occurrence - mineralogy - distinguishing features - habit - cleavage - texture - alteration - luster
Mineral names, chemical formulae and structural data accord to international standards. This is a very complete, but attractive and useful volume in a respected series.
Amateur Geologist note: This book originally was published by Cambridge under the title of Cambridge Guide to Minerals, Rocks and Fossils with this description: Whether hiking along a mountain trail, setting up camp in the field, or working in a garden, this is the definitive resource for anyone interested in identifying the rocks, minerals, or fossils they come across. Easily portable and with nearly 250 illustrations, with 145 in full-color, Cambridge Guide to Minerals, Rocks and Fossils is an indispensable handbook for amateur collectors and specialists alike. For each mineral, the authors explain and list the physical and optical properties, from crystal systems, hardness and fracture to color, transparency, and luster. They also discuss the occurrence of each mineral, as well as handy tips on their distinguishing features. For each type of rock, the Guide lists the color, color index, grain size, texture, structure, mineralogy, and field relations. In addition, for each fossil, the authors provide their corresponding type, age, and geographical distributions, along with detailed descriptions of their sizes and shapes. The clear, informative illustrations help elucidate technical concepts that often befuddle amateur collectors.
The Mineral Hardness Ruler is a stimulating visual aid, educates in one phase of mineralogy, and provides the standard ruler measurement scales needed in classes.
Rockhounds, mineral enthusiasts, students, teachers, geologists, and any one interested in rocks and minerals will find the Mineral Hardness Ruler a handy visual aid for quick information on mineral hardness.
The two-sided, flexible, glossy, vinyl ruler consists of five scales: three measurement scales and two mineral hardness scales. The measurement scales are in standard ruler measurements of tenths of inches, sixteenths of inches, and millimeters. Mohs' relative hardness numbers are integrated into the inch scales, while a separate scale exists for an absolute mineral hardness scale by Rosiwal.
On one side of the ruler are pictures of the ten common minerals, in full color, selected by Mohs for his relative hardness scale. On the reverse side of the ruler are six common items with their relative hardnesses. These items, along with known minerals, can be used as a handy field kit to test the relative hardness of an unknown mineral.
Hardness is one property of a mineral that can be used to distinguish among similar minerals. A given mineral can scratch any other mineral of the same or softer hardness. Over a hundred years ago, the German mineralogist Frederick Mohs devised the relative hardness scale that has found favor with mineralogists for over a century. Others, such as Rosiwal, formed absolute hardness scales using the same minerals as Mohs. For example, diamond, the hardest substance in Nature is not twice as hard as apatite, 10 versus 5, but over twenty thousand times as hard, 140,000 versus 6.5.
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