A classic is back in print—not just for geology majors!
Most people in Wisconsin share a deep appreciation of the shape and composition of their familiar landscapes-the abundance of fresh water, the fertile soils, the northern forests, the varied landforms. All these features relate to a process that is long, complex, and still in progress. Wisconsin's Foundations is just the book for a broad audience of interested people who want to know more about the origins, evolution, and geological underpinnings of the Wisconsin landscape.
"At the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, I see on an almost daily basis the hunger that the public has for the kind of understandable information Gwen Schultz has supplied."—from the foreword by James M. Robertson, Wisconsin State Geologist
Gwen Schultz is emeritus professor of geography at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and author of several books including Ice Age Lost and The Bucky Badger Story.
This book has received awards from the Wisconsin Historical Society and the Council for Wisconsin Writers.
The Mineral Hardness Ruler is a stimulating visual aid, educates in one phase of mineralogy, and provides the standard ruler measurement scales needed in classes.
Rockhounds, mineral enthusiasts, students, teachers, geologists, and any one interested in rocks and minerals will find the Mineral Hardness Ruler a handy visual aid for quick information on mineral hardness.
The two-sided, flexible, glossy, vinyl ruler consists of five scales: three measurement scales and two mineral hardness scales. The measurement scales are in standard ruler measurements of tenths of inches, sixteenths of inches, and millimeters. Mohs' relative hardness numbers are integrated into the inch scales, while a separate scale exists for an absolute mineral hardness scale by Rosiwal.
On one side of the ruler are pictures of the ten common minerals, in full color, selected by Mohs for his relative hardness scale. On the reverse side of the ruler are six common items with their relative hardnesses. These items, along with known minerals, can be used as a handy field kit to test the relative hardness of an unknown mineral.
Hardness is one property of a mineral that can be used to distinguish among similar minerals. A given mineral can scratch any other mineral of the same or softer hardness. Over a hundred years ago, the German mineralogist Frederick Mohs devised the relative hardness scale that has found favor with mineralogists for over a century. Others, such as Rosiwal, formed absolute hardness scales using the same minerals as Mohs. For example, diamond, the hardest substance in Nature is not twice as hard as apatite, 10 versus 5, but over twenty thousand times as hard, 140,000 versus 6.5.
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